# Precalculus Examples

Find the Upper and Lower Bounds
Find every combination of .
If a polynomial function has integer coefficients, then every rational zero will have the form where is a factor of the constant and is a factor of the leading coefficient.
Find every combination of . These are the possible roots of the polynomial function.
Apply synthetic division on when .
Place the numbers representing the divisor and the dividend into a division-like configuration.
The first number in the dividend is put into the first position of the result area (below the horizontal line).
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
All numbers except the last become the coefficients of the quotient polynomial. The last value in the result line is the remainder.
Simplify the quotient polynomial.
Since and all of the signs in the bottom row of the synthetic division are positive, is an upper bound for the real roots of the function.
Upper Bound:
Apply synthetic division on when .
Place the numbers representing the divisor and the dividend into a division-like configuration.
The first number in the dividend is put into the first position of the result area (below the horizontal line).
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
All numbers except the last become the coefficients of the quotient polynomial. The last value in the result line is the remainder.
Simplify the quotient polynomial.
Since and the signs in the bottom row of the synthetic division alternate sign, is a lower bound for the real roots of the function.
Lower Bound:
Apply synthetic division on when .
Place the numbers representing the divisor and the dividend into a division-like configuration.
The first number in the dividend is put into the first position of the result area (below the horizontal line).
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
All numbers except the last become the coefficients of the quotient polynomial. The last value in the result line is the remainder.
Simplify the quotient polynomial.
Since and all of the signs in the bottom row of the synthetic division are positive, is an upper bound for the real roots of the function.
Upper Bound:
Apply synthetic division on when .
Place the numbers representing the divisor and the dividend into a division-like configuration.
The first number in the dividend is put into the first position of the result area (below the horizontal line).
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .
Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.
All numbers except the last become the coefficients of the quotient polynomial. The last value in the result line is the remainder.
Simplify the quotient polynomial.
Since and the signs in the bottom row of the synthetic division alternate sign, is a lower bound for the real roots of the function.
Lower Bound:
Determine the upper and lower bounds.
Upper Bounds:
Lower Bounds: