# Linear Algebra Examples

Step 1

Assign a name for each vector.

Step 2

The first orthogonal vector is the first vector in the given set of vectors.

Step 3

Use the formula to find the other orthogonal vectors.

Step 4

Step 4.1

Use the formula to find .

Step 4.2

Substitute for .

Step 4.3

Find .

Step 4.3.1

Find the dot product.

Step 4.3.1.1

The dot product of two vectors is the sum of the products of the their components.

Step 4.3.1.2

Simplify.

Step 4.3.1.2.1

Simplify each term.

Step 4.3.1.2.1.1

Multiply by .

Step 4.3.1.2.1.2

Multiply by .

Step 4.3.1.2.1.3

Multiply by .

Step 4.3.1.2.2

Add and .

Step 4.3.1.2.3

Add and .

Step 4.3.2

Find the norm of .

Step 4.3.2.1

The norm is the square root of the sum of squares of each element in the vector.

Step 4.3.2.2

Simplify.

Step 4.3.2.2.1

One to any power is one.

Step 4.3.2.2.2

One to any power is one.

Step 4.3.2.2.3

One to any power is one.

Step 4.3.2.2.4

Add and .

Step 4.3.2.2.5

Add and .

Step 4.3.3

Find the projection of onto using the projection formula.

Step 4.3.4

Substitute for .

Step 4.3.5

Substitute for .

Step 4.3.6

Substitute for .

Step 4.3.7

Simplify the right side.

Step 4.3.7.1

Rewrite as .

Step 4.3.7.1.1

Use to rewrite as .

Step 4.3.7.1.2

Apply the power rule and multiply exponents, .

Step 4.3.7.1.3

Combine and .

Step 4.3.7.1.4

Cancel the common factor of .

Step 4.3.7.1.4.1

Cancel the common factor.

Step 4.3.7.1.4.2

Rewrite the expression.

Step 4.3.7.1.5

Evaluate the exponent.

Step 4.3.7.2

Multiply by each element of the matrix.

Step 4.3.7.3

Simplify each element in the matrix.

Step 4.3.7.3.1

Multiply by .

Step 4.3.7.3.2

Multiply by .

Step 4.3.7.3.3

Multiply by .

Step 4.4

Substitute the projection.

Step 4.5

Simplify.

Step 4.5.1

Combine each component of the vectors.

Step 4.5.2

Subtract from .

Step 4.5.3

Write as a fraction with a common denominator.

Step 4.5.4

Combine the numerators over the common denominator.

Step 4.5.5

Subtract from .

Step 4.5.6

Write as a fraction with a common denominator.

Step 4.5.7

Combine the numerators over the common denominator.

Step 4.5.8

Subtract from .

Step 5

Find the orthonormal basis by dividing each orthogonal vector by its norm.

Step 6

Step 6.1

To find a unit vector in the same direction as a vector , divide by the norm of .

Step 6.2

The norm is the square root of the sum of squares of each element in the vector.

Step 6.3

Simplify.

Step 6.3.1

One to any power is one.

Step 6.3.2

One to any power is one.

Step 6.3.3

One to any power is one.

Step 6.3.4

Add and .

Step 6.3.5

Add and .

Step 6.4

Divide the vector by its norm.

Step 6.5

Divide each element in the vector by .

Step 7

Step 7.1

To find a unit vector in the same direction as a vector , divide by the norm of .

Step 7.2

The norm is the square root of the sum of squares of each element in the vector.

Step 7.3

Simplify.

Step 7.3.1

Use the power rule to distribute the exponent.

Step 7.3.1.1

Apply the product rule to .

Step 7.3.1.2

Apply the product rule to .

Step 7.3.2

Raise to the power of .

Step 7.3.3

Multiply by .

Step 7.3.4

Raise to the power of .

Step 7.3.5

Raise to the power of .

Step 7.3.6

Apply the product rule to .

Step 7.3.7

One to any power is one.

Step 7.3.8

Raise to the power of .

Step 7.3.9

Apply the product rule to .

Step 7.3.10

One to any power is one.

Step 7.3.11

Raise to the power of .

Step 7.3.12

Combine the numerators over the common denominator.

Step 7.3.13

Add and .

Step 7.3.14

Combine the numerators over the common denominator.

Step 7.3.15

Add and .

Step 7.3.16

Cancel the common factor of and .

Step 7.3.16.1

Factor out of .

Step 7.3.16.2

Cancel the common factors.

Step 7.3.16.2.1

Factor out of .

Step 7.3.16.2.2

Cancel the common factor.

Step 7.3.16.2.3

Rewrite the expression.

Step 7.3.17

Rewrite as .

Step 7.4

Divide the vector by its norm.

Step 7.5

Divide each element in the vector by .

Step 7.6

Simplify.

Step 7.6.1

Multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator.

Step 7.6.2

Multiply by .

Step 7.6.3

Move to the left of .

Step 7.6.4

Move to the left of .

Step 7.6.5

Multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator.

Step 7.6.6

Multiply by .

Step 7.6.7

Multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator.

Step 7.6.8

Multiply by .

Step 8

Substitute the known values.